台灣首次舉辦線上基本收入高峰會

台灣首次舉辦線上基本收入高峰會

經過一年多的時間,台灣避免重大的本土 COVID 疫情的爆發,不過台灣在 5 月經歷了恐慌,出現了數百個病例。由於一夜之間數以百萬計的工作崗位不穩定,這將普發現金的措施帶到了台灣政治辯論的前沿。

在此背景下,UBI Taiwan 於 8 月 15 日舉辦了首次線上基本收入高峰會,邀請來自世界各地的學者、運動人士以及政治人物來討論疫情期間的基本收入狀況。

韓國京畿道知事李在明在高峰會開幕時指出了基本收入運動對於韓國和台灣的重要性。李現正參選韓國總統競選初期的領先地位。由於他的社會福利的政見,他被稱為『韓國的桑德斯』。

「當世界正在實施擴張性財政政策時,基本收入作為面臨第四次工業革命時代的最理性和準備措施」李說。

作為城南市前市長,李實行了一項青年基本收入計畫,該計畫讓該市所有 24 歲的青年每季度獲得地方貨幣。該計畫說明地方貨幣可以改善該地區的小型企業活動。後來當他成為知事時,他將該計畫擴展到了全省。

Kim Kyeong Soo 是京畿道政府願景規劃師的管理人。他也是青年基本收入計畫的規劃者。

「我們所做的是實現年輕人的基本社會權利而保障年輕人的權利」Kim 說。

青年基本收入是 COVID 危機期間的一個有用模型,因為省政府能夠在經濟衰退期間迅速擴大該計畫以包括該省的所有居民。

Kim 還討論了他們如何在疫情期間增加不同的社會福利項目,以及在全國範圍內推動基本收入的計畫。

「我們將地方貨幣的設計成只能在年銷售額在 12 億韓元以下的商店中可以用,這樣才能真正振興真正的胡同經濟的小企業主」Kim 說。

韓國基本收入網的成員 Mok Hwakyun 和 Kim Jae-seop 出席了高峰會的問答環節。他們提到基本收入已經成為韓國的主流話題。

「最大的變化是現在每個人都知道基本收入。我希望韓國能夠成為第一個實施 UBI 的國家」Mok 說。

著名的美國活動家 Scott Santens 在會議的採訪,他討論了美國大規模的 COVID 救濟計畫的成功和失敗。在美國已經出現的最大變化之一是兒童稅收抵免,Santens 表示,他相信這將使更多人會支持全民基本收入。

「我充滿希望,尤其是每月的兒童稅收抵免將真正改變這裡的情況,並有助於為美國建立真正的 UBI」Santens 說。

台灣陽明大學黃嵩立教授討論了全民基本服務與基本收入之間的爭論。他的結論是,基本服務沒有提供與基本收入相同的個人自由。

UBI Taiwan 理事長羅泰(Tyler Prochazka )評估了台灣的 COVID 救濟響應,並指出了台灣救濟的不足和複雜性。

今年 5 月,當地爆發導致台灣在疫情期間首次進入三級。台灣正在經歷一個奇怪的矛盾,儘管其他行業被封鎖,但其強勁的出口產業推動了台灣創紀錄的經濟增長。與此同時,封鎖令台灣員工經歷了數十年來最糟糕的經濟狀況,尤其是服務業。

由於封鎖,一半台灣人的工資減少了 10% 至 50%,且 74% 的人表示工資有所減少。與此同時,41% 的台灣人表示他們認為政府的 COVID 救濟計畫沒有提供任何幫助。救濟計畫的一些問題是,它依賴大量文件來證明個人的情況。比如說,如果家人的銀行裡有太多錢,也可能排除申請人。

例如,台灣在封鎖期間失業人數達到 57 萬人,低於正常工作時間的人數達到近 100 萬人。然而,6 月份的失業救濟人數僅增加了 2 萬人,不到同期真正失業人數增加的四分之一。

台灣的二級封鎖已延長至 9 月 6 日,這對企業的運營方式施加了不同程度的限制,並完全關閉了某些企業,例如某些娛樂場所。即使大部分地區恢復正常,但在可預見的未來,許多企業的運營可能會繼續受到限制,需求也會減少。

儘管台灣是幾十年來最糟糕的就業形勢之一,但今年政府僅將其年度 GDP 的 6% 用於 COVID 救濟計畫。與日本和美國將其國內生產總值的 16% 至 30% 用於 COVID 救濟相比,台灣作為發達經濟體對其公民的幫助要少得多。

台灣執政黨民進黨正準備推出另一輪價值 5,000 新台幣(180 美元)的振興券。由於與 COVID 救濟計畫相關的嚴格條件,對於許多台灣家庭來說,通用振興券是政府 COVID 響應中最容易獲得的幫助。台灣在野黨現在大力推動為大多數台灣人發放現金而不是券,並利用行政儲蓄為貧困家庭提供額外的現金補助。

「台灣執政黨表示,他們希望與所有台灣人『分享經濟增長』,不過分享經濟增長的真正方式是無條件基本收入」羅泰說。

Original English Article here.

Translation: Tyler Prochazka & Pandora Lai

台灣首次舉辦線上基本收入高峰會

Taiwan holds first online basic income summit

After over a year of avoiding significant local COVID outbreaks, Taiwan experienced a scare in May with hundreds of cases emerging. This brought the idea of universal cash payments to the forefront of Taiwan’s political debate as millions of jobs were destabilized overnight.

With this backdrop, UBI Taiwan held its first-ever online basic income summit on August 15, inviting professors, activists, and politicians from around the world to discuss the state of basic income during the COVID pandemic.

Korea’s Gyeonggi Province Governor Lee Jae-myung opened the summit by noting the importance of the basic income movement in Korea and Taiwan. Lee is currently a frontrunner in the early stages of Korea’s presidential race. He has been called the “Bernie Sanders of Korea” because of his economic proposals.

“When the world is implementing expansive fiscal policy, basic income is gaining attention as the most rational and remarkable way to prepare for the era of the fourth industrial revolution,” Lee said in his address to the conference.

As the former mayor of Seongnam, Lee started a youth basic income program for all 24-year-old youth in the city to receive local currency every quarter. The scheme was shown to improve small business activity in the region. He later expanded the program to the province when he became governor.

Kim Kyeong Soo is part of the Gyeonggi provincial government vision planner. He is the planner of the provincial youth basic income program.

“What we are doing at our expense is to realize the basic social rights of young people,” Kim said in an interview for the conference.

This was a useful model during the COVID crisis because the provincial government was able to quickly expand the program to include all residents of the province during the economic downturn.

Kim also discussed how they increased a myriad of programs during the COVID pandemic and the plans to push for basic income on a nationwide scale.

“We designed it so that it could only be used in stores with annual sales of 1.2 billion won or less, so that the money could be actually revitalized for the small business owners of the real alley economy,” Kim said.

Members of the Basic Income Korea Network Mok Hwakyun and Kim Jae-seop attended the summit for the question-and-answer session. They noted how basic income has become a mainstream topic in Korea.

“The biggest change is that everyone knows about basic income now,” Mok said. “I hope Korea will be the first country” to implement UBI.

Prominent US activist Scott Santens gave a pre-recorded interview for the conference where he discussed the success and failures of America’s massive COVID relief program. One of the biggest changes that has emerged is the Child Tax Credit, which Santens said he believes will get more people on board with a wider basic income safety net.  

“I feel hopeful that especially the monthly CTC is going to really change things here and help build momentum for a full UBI here in the US,” Santens said.

Taiwan’s Yangming University Professor Song-Lih Huang discussed the debate between Universal Basic Services compared to basic income. He concluded that UBS does not provide the same level of individual freedom as UBI.

UBI Taiwan Chairman Tyler Prochazka evaluated Taiwan’s COVID relief response and noted the inadequacy and complexity of receiving relief.

The situation became more severe this past May when a local outbreak caused Taiwan to go into level 3 lockdown for the first time during the pandemic. Taiwan is experiencing a bizarre contradiction, where record economic growth is fueled by its strong export sector despite the lockdown for other industries. At the same time, the lockdown has caused Taiwan’s employees to experience their worst economic situation in decades, particularly for the service industry.

As a result of the lockdown, half of Taiwanese experienced wage reductions of 10 to 50 percent, and 74 percent reported some reduction in wages. At the same time, 41 percent said they believed the government’s COVID relief program provided no help. One issue with the relief program is it relies on extensive documentation to prove an individual’s circumstance and can also reject an applicant if a household member has too much money in the bank.

For example, Taiwan’s unemployment had reached 570,000 people and the number experiencing lower than normal working hours had reached nearly one million during the lockdown. However, only 20,000 people were added to unemployment benefits during June which is less than one-fourth of the increased unemployment for that period.  

Level two lockdown has been extended until September 6 in Taiwan, which places varying levels of restrictions on how businesses operate and closes some businesses entirely, such as certain entertainment venues. Even as much of the country returns to normal, many businesses will likely experience continued restrictions on their operations as well as reduced demand for the foreseeable future.

Despite one of the worst employment situations in decades for Taiwan, the government has only allocated around 6 percent of its annual GDP on COVID relief this year. Compared to Japan and the United States, which spent between 16 to 30 percent of their GDPs on COVID relief, Taiwan has given significantly less to its citizens as a developed economy.

Taiwan’s ruling party Democratic Progressive Party is moving toward another round of stimulus coupons worth 5,000 NT ($180 USD). Due to the stringent conditions associated with COVID relief programs, the universal coupons are the most accessible program from the government’s COVID response for many families. There has been a strong push by opposition parties in Taiwan to provide cash relief now for most Taiwanese instead of coupons and use the administrative savings to give an additional cash boost to poor households.

“Taiwan’s ruling party said they want to ‘share economic growth’ with all Taiwanese,” Prochazka said. “The real way to share economic growth is with Universal Basic Income.”

基本收入是对未来的“投资”

羅泰     | 2020年9月15日 | 观点

当前动荡的时代背景下,关于城市应该如何适应快速变化的经济和技术發展     这一问题出现了激烈的争论。智慧城市之教育專題系列活動(Smart City Education Inside)     邀请了两位专家讨论现金转移政策     的前景,以加强城市的永續性     ,并为学生提供公平的教育机会。

智慧城市在线之教育專題系列活動     是資策會數位教育研究所     (Digital Education Institute, III)和人才流通联盟(Talent Circulation Alliance)的联合專案项目。在台湾經濟部工業局     的協助     下,该專案     为那些对教育科技、     永續学习和     永續社会发展感兴趣的人举办了一系列的专题讨论和主题演讲活动。

周二(8月11日),曾任职两届     芝加哥市議員     ,     第一位当选伊利诺伊州重要职位的亚裔和印第安裔美国人阿梅亚·帕瓦尔先生     的演讲“尊严、体面和机构:以全民基本收入為     例”。收入不平等、财富不平等,以及几十年来偏向     企业財團和     银行而非工薪阶层的政策,都成为使其     轉向全民基本收入(UBI)概念     的原因。

帕瓦尔认为,美國社会在     各个方面都遭受     对贫困的忽视而導致的衝擊     ,     無論是国家和地方两个维度都有必要將心力投資在弭平貧富差距上     。

帕瓦尔问道:“是什么导致我们相信,如果我們給人們生活一點幫助,人们会做错事或坏事或做更少的事     ,          ?”     他说:     “为了实现永續     发展,人们需要先有内建     的适应力     。”    

对于现金资助可能会让人们     不愿意工作的观点,帕瓦尔说,研究表明事实并非如此。“给人们钱并不能改变人们想要希望自己有生產力,有貢獻     ;     在這之上,它给了人们對生活更多的选择和     喘息空间。”

在周四(8月13日),我们邀请到RSA未来工作中心的     營運規劃駐點創業家希尔·克莱恩先生分享他的演讲“数位     时代的儿童中心導向发展”。

克莱恩认为,随着服务和     科技成为经济的主要驱动力,一     部分人口被落下了。这就是为什么我們需要一个更现代化和更健全的社会保障网络来帮助人们适应这种快速的技术变革。當     政府对低收入家庭如何使用公共福利     有著諸多限制的同時,     卻以大幅度     税收减免的形式给其他人们提供资金。这些不平等的條件     表明了对一些人的信任和对另一些人的不信任。事实上,          在無條件的情況下,特別是全民     的,現金轉移政策     更容易管理      

由于儿童是克莱恩研究的一个重要焦点,他认为对儿童缺乏投资不仅会影響     他们的人生展望     ,     更會影響整个社会潜在的未來经济增长     。他分享     普遍儿童储蓄账户、婴儿债券和基本收入的例子,     展現了它们將如何使儿童受益,他认为这些才是在数位     时代     投資所有儿童的未來的主要方法。


Translation into Chinese by Qihao Liang.

The original article in English can be found here.

Cost of Living: An interview with basic income documentarians

Cost of Living: An interview with basic income documentarians

A new film is hoping to answer the question of whether life itself should be subsidized. Directors Sean Blacknell and Wayne Walsh have produced a new documentary “The Cost of Living” which discusses the mental and physical burden placed on those with unstable incomes and whether basic income is the right remedy.

The film interviews many prominent basic income scholars, such as Guy Standing and Barb Jacobson. It is focused on the issues specifically facing the United Kingdom, where there are “3.5 million people in ‘in-work poverty.’” With the arrival of COVID-19, the film-makers argue the discussion about basic income is even more pertinent than ever. 

The filmmakers expressed that many of the current programs in the UK are failing to rise to the moment with extreme distress around the country, such as the universal credit which they called “dehumanizing.” 

“You have to prove you are deserving,” Blacknell said. 

Steve Botrill, the deputy chief executive of Urban Outreach Bolton, is interviewed in the documentary. He said that much of the current stress on the poor in the UK is due to reductions in benefits and more stringent conditions placed on social services.

As a result, Botrill said that this is a cause for the “astronomical” growth of food banks in the UK in recent years.

In the documentary, it is argued that much of a person’s wealth is dependent on luck, such as where a person is born. 

Initially, the film was going to take a broad look at social programs, but narrowed to basic income as they moved forward. In the long-run, the filmmakers noted that this discussion around basic income will continue to be important because of the changing economic and technology trends around the world. 

However, the filmmakers emphasized that after interviewing many scholars they do not believe basic income is a “panacea” on its own. By interviewing a wide range of viewpoints, they hoped to create a “more nuanced take” on basic income.

With new spikes of COVID-19 around the world, Wayne and Blacknell hope the film can reach a wider audience to facilitate this debate. It is now available on Amazon Prime for streaming.

「解放我們的想像力」:台灣舉行首次基本收入遊行

「解放我們的想像力」:台灣舉行首次基本收入遊行

台灣在12月13日進行了有史以來第一次的基本收入大遊行,吸引了超越 100 名參與者在台灣立法院前集會。現任和前任立法委員參加了這場由 UBI Taiwan 舉辦的首場遊行,呼籲對青年紅利進行更多討論,並保障所有台灣人享有基本生計的權利。

台灣民眾黨著名的立法委員蔡壁如在立法院前的遊行開幕式上致辭。她說,參加集會是因為她想表達對「勇敢」說話的台灣年輕人的支持。蔡討論了使用碳稅和紅利來邁向基本收入的可能性。

「今天參加基本收入遊行時,我看到年輕的朋友站起來。他們勇於支持一個容易被誤解的新想法」她說。

按照基本收入全球網(BIEN)對基本收入的定義是:定期現金付款,無條件地交付給所有人,無需經濟審查或工作要求。

UBI Taiwan 於 2016 年非正式開始,於 2018 年正式成立。到目前為止,該組織舉辦了三屆國際研討會,並編寫了多份白皮書,分析了實現基本收入的方法。最近,UBI Taiwan 發布了一份白皮書,主張緊急基本收入,並於 2020 年初與立法委員開會,討論將現金移轉納入台灣紓困振興方案的可能性。

組織者說,遊行的三個主要訴求是:保障基本生活權,保護經濟安全感,防止在職家庭陷入低薪工作。 

隨著全球大流行病的持續蔓延,台灣在 200 天內未經歷本土傳播,因此集會得以不受限制地進行。儘管如此,遊行組織者表示,由大流行引起的經濟不確定性為台灣的基本收入討論創造了新的急迫性。儘管預計今年總體增長溫和,但台灣受到全球經濟衰退的不均衡影響,對低收入家庭的傷害尤其嚴重。 

前立法委員以及前台南縣縣長蘇煥智在遊行中說,促進基本收入制度將幫助年輕人增加選擇工作的靈活性和機會,還將幫助失業者保持尊嚴。

台灣綠黨秘書長張竹芩說:基本收入「為每個人提供了普遍保護,減輕了剝削和勞累的困境。」張說,台灣目前具有嚴格條件和資格的社會福利制度並不適合迅速變化的現代時代。

張說:「當人們不再需要擔心自己的基本必需品時,他們可以為自己的生活制定長遠的計畫,並且可以從事更具創造性的公共福利工作。」

蔡認為,許多對基本收入的批評是三十年前台灣開始實行早期的社會福利制度時提出的。當時,許多人擔心社會福利將使政府破產。不過,她說社會福利並不是台灣政府浪費金錢的地方。

「最大的問題是,政府浪費金錢來建造許多大型和不合適的建築項目和未使用的政府建築物。這些浪費的項目增加了債務並損害了自然環境,」蔡說。

為了幫助公眾了解台灣面臨的問題,集會包括對公眾進行基本收入教育的攤位,分享與基本收入和全球基本收入運動有關的真實故事,以及供公眾討論有關以上內容的開放空間和基本收入與未來的技術驅動型經濟。

在遊行之前,來自世界各地的著名基本收入學者向台灣發送了他們的建議和良好祝愿,這其中包括基本收入全球網主席 Sarath Davala。他說,他希望台灣的基本收入遊行成為該地區其他國家的「榜樣」。

Davala 說:「在台灣舉行的遊行表明,UBI Taiwan運動已走到了多麼強大,它有能力提供和影響政府採用這種創新體系。」

倫敦大學教授 Guy Standing 說,疫情帶來的後果表明:「社會的復原力以及我們個人的復原力將取決於社會中最弱小的群組的復原力。 」

Standing 說:「現在是基本收入運動和基本收入製度的時刻。勇敢的政客們必須抓住這個機會,迎來一個更美好的社會。

對於蔡壁如來說,台灣第一次的基本收入遊行,正展開更多關於如何重新構想台灣社會的未來。她討論了基本收入如何可以緩解台北市高房價的問題,並引起人工智能的位移,同時鼓勵更多的創業精神 。

就全球開始的巨大變化,蔡說:「世界總是在變化,我們的想像力需要解放。」

UBI Taiwan 理事長羅泰(Tyler Prochazka)上台討論了他為何在台灣推廣基本收入。 在美國的爾布萊特計畫之下,他在 2016 年開始在國立政治大學研究台灣實行基本收入的可行性。

「我真的相信台灣有機會實現基本收入,從而開拓台灣年輕人的未開發潛力。」羅說。

翻譯:賴君怡,UBI Taiwan


Translation into Chinese by Tyler Prochazka.

The article in English can be found here.